By Walter Savitch
Absolute C++ , deals entire insurance of the C++ programming language. It presents the entire instruments priceless for skilled and amateur programmers to grasp C++, together with: thorough insurance of the traditional Template Library; entire and completely executable code all through; sections highlighting programming assistance and customary pitfalls; and a logical order of assurance of C++ subject matters to ensure that scholars to higher comprehend the language. This booklet is suitable for introductory classes protecting the C++ language, intermediate programming classes introducing C++ to scholars acquainted with one other language and may act as a complete reference past a student's coursework.
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Additional info for Absolute C++, First edition
2, you will see that this expression is equivalent to: ((x + 1) > 2) || ((x + 1) < -3) Boolean Expressions 51 because > and < have higher precedence than ||. In fact, you could omit all the parentheses in the previous expression and it would have the same meaning, although it would be harder to read. Although we do not advocate omitting all the parentheses, it might be instructive to see how such an expression is interpreted using the precedence rules. Here is the expression without any parentheses: x + 1 > 2 || x + 1 < -3 The precedences rules say first apply the unary -, then apply the +’s, then the > and the <, and finally apply the ||, which is exactly what the fully parenthesized version says to do.
Notice that the precedence rules include both arithmetic operators such as + and * as well as Boolean operators such as && and ||. 2, you will see that this expression is equivalent to: ((x + 1) > 2) || ((x + 1) < -3) Boolean Expressions 51 because > and < have higher precedence than ||. In fact, you could omit all the parentheses in the previous expression and it would have the same meaning, although it would be harder to read. Although we do not advocate omitting all the parentheses, it might be instructive to see how such an expression is interpreted using the precedence rules.
This method of evaluation is called shortcircuit evaluation. Some languages other than C++ use complete evaluation. In complete evaluation, when two expressions are joined by an && or ||, both subexpressions are always evaluated and then the truth tables are used to obtain the value of the final expression. Both short-circuit evaluation and complete evaluation give the same answer, so why should you care that C++ uses short-circuit evaluation? Most of the time you need not care. As long as both subexpressions joined by the && or the || have a value, the two methods yield the same result.