By Jamie Hubbard
Despite the typical view of Buddhism as non-dogmatic and tolerant, the old list preserves many examples of Buddhist thinkers and events that have been banned as heretical or subversive. The San-chieh (Three degrees) used to be a well-liked and influential chinese language Buddhist move through the Sui and Tang classes, counting strong statesmen, imperial princes, or even an empress, Empress Wu, between its buyers. In spite, or even accurately simply because, of its proximity to strength, the San-chieh circulation ran afoul of the professionals and its teachings and texts have been formally proscribed a number of occasions over a several-hundred-year historical past. due to those suppressions San-chieh texts have been misplaced and little information regarding its teachings or heritage is out there. the current paintings, the 1st English research of the San-chieh flow, makes use of manuscripts stumbled on at Tun-huang to check the doctrine and institutional practices of this stream within the greater context of Mahayana doctrine and perform. through viewing San-Chieh within the context of Mahayana Buddhism, Hubbard finds it to be faraway from heretical and thereby increases very important questions about orthodoxy and canon in Buddhism. He indicates that some of the hallmark rules and practices of chinese language Buddhism locate an early and special expression within the San-chieh texts.
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Extra resources for Absolute Delusion, Perfect Buddahood: The Rise and Fall of a Chinese Heresy (Nanazan Library
As noted above, maintaining such an orthodoxy in an oral tradition demands great attention to the “words and letters,” or the forms in which the tradition is heard and taught, for the performance of a tradition becomes in good part the tradition itself. 21 17 The Book of the Gradual Sayings (Aªguttara-nik„ya), vol. 1: 53. The countervailing attitude is found in the Buddha’s well-known injunction against formalizing the language of the teaching, preferring instead, for example, regional dialects (Davidson, “Standards,” 292–93).
79 We can think, for example, of the simple and settling inµuence of the physical training gained by circumambulation and prostration (prostration was also a frequently assigned punishment for infractions of meditation hall rules; see chapter 6); developing humility and respect through ritual ablutions, cleansing and adorning the ritual site, and building the altar; cultivating the power of concentration through offering, chanting, and visualization; and, of course, fostering an acute awareness of the unavoidable nature of sin through confession and repentance.
After his death his body was abandoned at the spot of Hsin-hsing’s “sky burial,” and his bones were later collected and enshrined in a stupa. In summary, Hsin-hsing’s community took shape largely during the turbulent years of the late sixth century, a time of great adversity as well as great opportunity for Chinese Buddhists. The tumultuous centuries of warfare and cultural change prior to the uni³cation of the Sui and establishment of the imperial capital at Ch’ang-an saw both large-scale suppressions of Buddhism as well as the development of indigenous forms of Buddhist doctrine, practice, and institution.