By Sergio R. López-Permouth, Dinh Van Huynh

This quantity includes refereed learn and expository articles via either plenary and different audio system on the foreign convention on Algebra and functions held at Ohio collage in June 2008, to honor S.K. Jain on his seventieth birthday. The articles are on a large choice of components in classical ring idea and module conception, reminiscent of earrings enjoyable polynomial identities, earrings of quotients, workforce earrings, homological algebra, injectivity and its generalizations, and so forth. incorporated also are functions of ring conception to difficulties in coding idea and in linear algebra.

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**Sample text**

So we have that qext (R) ⊆ qext(R-simp). The converse inclusion holds because each simple module is a quotient of R. 4, we have that R is left semiartinian. Thus R is left artinian. 1. R-qext and R-conat In [1] we proved that the skeleton of R-her is R-nat and we deﬁned R-conat as the skeleton of R-quot. An element of R-conat is called a conatural class. In [2] we proved that R-conat is also a boolean lattice. Also we showed that a class Q ∈ Rquot is a conatural class if and only if it satisﬁes the following CN -condition: Q = Q⊥{ } ⊥{ } , where ⊥{ } denotes pseudocomplements in the big lattice L{ } consisting of the module classes closed under quotients.

Consider the exact sequence 0→K→M →L→0 with K ∈ E(C, C) and L ∈ E(C, C)m . We will prove that M ∈ E(C, C)l+m , by induction on l. If l = 0, there is nothing to prove. Let us suppose l > 0. We can take a diagram with exact rows and columns: l 0 → 0 → 0 ↓ K1 ↓ K ↓ K K1 ↓ 0 = → → 0 ↓ K1 ↓ M ↓ M K1 ↓ 0 → L → 0 → L → 0 K ∈ E(C, C)l−1 and K1 ∈ C. K1 K Since L ∈ E(C, C)m and ∈ E(C, C)l−1 , we have that K1 M ∈ E(C, C)(l−1)+m . K1 where So we have that M ∈ E(C, C)l+m as desired. For each hereditary class H ⊆ C, with C ∈ R-sext we have that E(H, H) ⊆ C.

Thus, we may suppose that G is abelian, R is reversible but not commutative, and |RG| ≤ 256. If |G| ≥ 3, then |R| < 7; therefore, R is commutative, hence RG is both reversible and symmetric. Thus we may assume that G = C2 . If |RC2 | < 256, then |R| ≤ 15 and thus R is either commutative or non-reversible. Hence, we need only to consider the case RC2 with R noncommutative and reversible, and |R| = 16. It was proved in [7] that there is a unique non-commutative reversible ring R0 with 1 of order 16.